Thursday, May 21, 2020

Business Skills in China - 618 Words

Throughout the 19th century, China’s leaders have been of older age until the Politburo standing Committee decided to search for intelligent and younger citizens to become the 4th generation of The Communist Party of China. Along with many others Hu Jintao was chosen to be one of the future leaders. Before becoming one of the most important people in China, Hu Jintao learned the values of business. These business skills taught by his working-class father conveyed well into his style of running the country, like a business. Hu’s Aunt had been his primary caregiver through his mother’s passing when Hu was just 7. Years later Hu Jintao’s father was denounced in the Cultural Revolution causing a deep effect On Hu, enough so he tried to clear his fathers name. Throughout Hu Jintao’s childhood he gained an understanding of both the people in his village and the country. Even with his families economic stature, Hu Jintao received a good education. Hu sta rted his schooling in his home town of Taizou where he obtained primary and secondary education. There Hu was a gifted student who enjoyed the arts as well as math and science. while excelling in all aspects of school Hu was interested in other things such as engineering and politics. Following his interest in engineering, Hu attended Tsinghua University in Beijing during which he joined the Communist party of china. Once Hu had graduated in the field of hydraulic engineering he was chosen and promoted by Song Ping,Show MoreRelated(M2) Compare the Challenges to Selected Business Activities Within a Selected Organisation, in Two Different Economic Environments1255 Words   |  6 Pageschallenges to selected business activities within a selected organisation, in two different economic environments. It is very common in large businesses to expand abroad but there are a lot of factors to be considered when planning to start operation in a different country as countries differ depending on their background, policies, infrastructure and stability. In this report I will compare the challenges to business activities within Tesco Plc. In two different economic environments: China and UK. I haveRead MoreMultinational Companies : An Organization Essay1536 Words   |  7 Pagesgrowing capabilities and to expand from domestic to globalization. However, many of multinational companies will be facing different dilemmas and obstacles towards to international market. Additionally, many countries have different approach towards to business market. In fact, when domestic company moving to global economy they need to involve in organizational learning and adjust to cooperate well with people and market. Multinational company must find the best idea and decision making between centralizedRead MoreChallenges Faced By The Multinational Organizations1396 Words   |  6 Pagesexpand their business in the international countries have to face various cross-cultural challenges. This post is based on this concept of cultural challenges faced by the multinational organization while doing business in the international market. To discuss the challenges, the report selects the developing country-China and highlights the challenges that the multinational organizations can face if they are thinking of expanding in China. NEW TRENDS OF MULTINATIONALS IN CHINA MultinationalRead MoreText Synthesis Chapter 1 The Nature of Business Why do we study Business? Many people study1600 Words   |  7 PagesText Synthesis Chapter 1 The Nature of Business Why do we study Business? Many people study business because it offers so many career opportunities in general and plus everything that we deal in today society has to do with business. Think about the clothes, shoes, etc. you wearing today and then think of what business made it very possible for us to be wearing those merchandise and top of that it satisfied the sellers that’s buying the product this is called tangible and intangible good that provideRead MoreBusiness in China1188 Words   |  5 PagesBusiness in China 1. What challenges do foreign firms face when they seek to transfer their home management style to China? 2. Discuss the reform of Chinese state-owned enterprises and related government policy changes. Evaluate the impact within the state-owned businesses and the chinese society. Chinese management Doing business in China requires a throughout understanding of their management philosophy and practices. Their management style is different in many respects from mainstreamRead MoreThe American International Group, Inc ( Aig )890 Words   |  4 PagesIn today’s economy, China is one of the fastest growing countries. China has rich resources, which has become the leader of export around the world. China is developing rapidly, causes many eyes staring at this flourishing opportunity. For companies with a global outlook, having a foothold in China is a growing necessity. Foreign companies’ rapid expansion in China and the relative scarcity of highly trained local personnel mean many US and other foreign firms find it necessary to import key personnelRead MoreQuestions On Human Resource Management1730 Words   |  7 Pages Content Contents Introduction 2 HRM in China 2 The Labour Market 2 State-owned enterprises (SOEs) 2 HR Challenges for foreign enterprises 2 1.3.1 Recruitment and selection 2 1.3.2 Training and Development 3 HRM in Japan 3 Lifelong Employment 3 A Seniority-based wage system 4 Enterprise Unions 4 Japan’s future 5 Comparing China and Japan 5 Business Etiquettes in China 5 Business Etiquette in Japan 6 Conclusion 7 Introduction Human Resource Management is one of the most important functionsRead MoreAsimco Case Analysis998 Words   |  4 PagesAsian Strategic Investments Corporation (â€Å"ASIMCO†) was founded in China in 1994 by Jack Perkowski who had worked on Wall Street for 20 years. By 2002, ASIMCO had become one of the largest automotive components manufacturers in the Chinese automobile industry, and by 2008, it had established 17 manufacturing operations in 10 provinces in China, as well as regional offices in the US, Japan, and England (Wong, 2009). However, the company encountered management problems in the early stage. To break throughRead MoreOrigin Of Successful Enterprises Can Be Observed Among China Born Immigrants Essay1550 Words   |  7 Pagessuccessful enterprises can be observed among China-born immigrants in the GTA, and how can these enterprises be described? The types of effective businesses in the study that could be observed among China-born immigrants in the GTA were skil led, specialized or useful and functional personal or home related services and businesses. For instances, the practical and skillful of HAC home services, real estate brokerage, fast printing of Chinese business cards and fast food advertisings, accountingRead MoreDeveloping an International Growth Strategy at New York Fries1148 Words   |  5 Pagesfat-free, sunflower oil. Jay Gould, president of The Company and founder is holding a biannual meeting with its franchisees in the next three days. He is planning to discuss about the plan to have international expansion into another countries, such as China, India, and South Korea. However there are many risks and costs to consider, as there have been a number of failures in international expansion at South Korea and Australia. NYF operate mainly from franchise. Franchise owners bought the rights to operate

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald - 947 Words

Fitzgerald wrote one of his most famous books The Great Gatsby, during the Age of Disillusionment. He focuses on the idea that everyone wants love, money, social class superiority,happiness, etc. The main American Dreams that Fitzgerald writes about are love and money. He shows that through his character s hopes and dreams. For example, Gatsby’s dream of being with Daisy and Nick’s hope for becoming rich; even though to Fitzgerald they are only myths. The American Dreams are to find love and get rich, however Fitzgerald believes that The American Dream can not be achieved. One of the American Dreams that Fitzgerald talks about is love. â€Å"He knew that when he kissed this girl, and forever wed his utterable visions to her perishable breath,...†(110). In The Great Gatsby, Gatsby is the dreamer who is in love with Daisy. â€Å"The officer looked at Daisy while she was speaking, in a way that every young wants to be looked at some time†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (75). Most ev eryone wants to find love in life. Gatsby found it, however it did not go as planned. Some people start out searching for love, and others are patient and let love find them. Love found Gatsby; he was trying to get rich when he met Daisy. Like many love stories it starts out great, but no story is a smooth ride. In Gatsby’s case it was unacceptable for a rich girl to marry a poor boy. However, once someone finds love they tend to want to hold on to it. Gatsby held on so tight that he kept it for five years after he last saw her andShow MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald1393 Words   |  6 PagesF. Scott Fitzgerald was the model of the American image in the nineteen twenties. He had wealth, fame, a beautiful wife, and an adorable daughter; all seemed perfect. Beneath the gilded faà §ade, however, was an author who struggled with domestic and physical difficulties that plagued his personal life and career throughout its short span. This author helped to launch the theme that is so prevalent in his work; the human instinct to yearn for more, into the forefront of American literature, where itRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1343 Words   |  6 PagesHonors English 10 Shugart 18 Decemeber 2014 The Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald s 1925 novel The Great Gatsby is a tragic love story, a mystery, and a social commentary on American life. The Great Gatsby is about the lives of four wealthy characters observed by the narrator, Nick Carroway. Throughout the novel a mysterious man named Jay Gatsby throws immaculate parties every Saturday night in hope to impress his lost lover, Daisy Buchanan. Gatsby lives in a mansion on West Egg across from DaisyRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1155 Words   |  5 PagesThe Great Gatsby The Jazz Age was an era where everything and anything seemed possible. It started with the beginning of a new age with America coming out of World War I as the most powerful nation in the world (Novel reflections on, 2007). As a result, the nation soon faced a culture-shock of material prosperity during the 1920’s. Also known as the â€Å"roaring twenties†, it was a time where life consisted of prodigality and extravagant parties. Writing based on his personal experiences, author F. ScottRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1166 Words   |  5 Pagesin the Haze F. Scott Fitzgerald lived in a time that was characterized by an unbelievable lack of substance. After the tragedy and horrors of WWI, people were focused on anything that they could that would distract from the emptiness that had swallowed them. Tangible greed tied with extreme materialism left many, by the end of this time period, disenchanted. The usage of the literary theories of both Biographical and Historical lenses provide a unique interpretation of the Great Gatsby centered aroundRead MoreThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald845 Words   |  3 PagesIn F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, The Great Gatsby, colors represent a variety of symbols that relate back to the American Dream. The dream of being pure, innocent and perfect is frequently associated with the reality of corruption, violence, and affairs. Gatsby’s desire for achieving the American Dream is sought for through corruption (Schneider). The American Dream in the 1920s was perceived as a desire of w ealth and social standings. Social class is represented through the East Egg, the WestRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay970 Words   |  4 Pagesrespecting and valuing Fitzgerald work in the twenty-first century? Fitzgerald had a hard time to profiting from his writing, but he was not successful after his first novel. There are three major point of this essay are: the background history of Fitzgerald life, the comparisons between Fitzgerald and the Gatsby from his number one book in America The Great Gatsby, and the Fitzgerald got influences of behind the writing and being a writer. From childhood to adulthood, Fitzgerald faced many good andRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald2099 Words   |  9 Pagesauthor to mirror his life in his book. In his previous novels F. Scott Fitzgerald drew from his life experiences. He said that his next novel, The Great Gatsby, would be different. He said, â€Å"In my new novel I’m thrown directly on purely creative work† (F. Scott Fitzgerald). He did not realize or did not want it to appear that he was taking his own story and intertwining it within his new novel. In The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, he imitates his lifestyle through the Buchanan family to demonstrateRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1607 Words   |  7 Pages The Great Gatsby is an American novel written in 1925 by F. Scott Fitzgerald. One of the themes of the book is the American Dream. The American Dream is an idea in which Americans believe through hard work they can achieve success and prosperity in the free world. In F. Scott Fitzgerald s novel, The Great Gatsby, the American Dream leads to popularity, extreme jealousy and false happiness. Jay Gatsby’s recent fortune and wealthiness helped him earn a high social position and become one of the mostRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1592 Words   |  7 PagesMcGowan English 11A, Period 4 9 January 2014 The Great Gatsby Individuals who approach life with an optimistic mindset generally have their goals established as their main priority. Driven by ambition, they are determined to fulfill their desires; without reluctance. These strong-minded individuals refuse to be influenced by negative reinforcements, and rely on hope in order to achieve their dreams. As a man of persistence, the wealthy Jay Gatsby continuously strives to reclaim the love of hisRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1646 Words   |  7 PagesThe 1920s witnessed the death of the American Dream, a message immortalized in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Initially, the American Dream represented the outcome of American ideals, that everyone has the freedom and opportunity to achieve their dreams provided they perform honest hard work. During the 1920s, the United States experienced massive economic prosperity making the American Dream seem alive and strong. However, in Fitzgerald’s eyes, the new Am erican culture build around that

A passion for practicing medicine in Developing Country Free Essays

A life with purpose is a life without misery. While yet many choose purpose out of a mere likeness, I have chosen mine out of interest, vision and passion. To live beyond a committed life in the world of medicine is my focal point. We will write a custom essay sample on A passion for practicing medicine in Developing Country or any similar topic only for you Order Now Yes, an opportunity to live a noble future that reflects constantly on the healing assignment, making people appreciate the privilege of breath. Of more interest of course, is the agendum to study medicine.A worthwhile career to contribute to life, making the world a better place to live. Health is wealth, so says a common saying. The study of health hence is the study of wealth. I am quite positive that my interest dwells in the study of medicine not only for a mere need to able to treat the ill ones, but a mission to spread the awareness of the need of good living and good health to all and sundry. Awareness that many of human ways bring about many diseases. Very few is aware that there are many more lethal diseases than AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).Diseases like Bird flu, Cancer, Leukemia, SARS, to mention but few, are relatively unaddressed by many. Another issue that needs attention is the nutritional intake of human. Good nutrient does not only strengthen the body system, it also allows the body to resist some diseases. In the developed world, many eat and overfeed yet without taking the necessary nutrient. While in the developing countries, the case is more severe. The reason is not unconnected to the fact that they have shortage of food, hence shortage of nutrient necessary for good health. If only there could be more seminars, campaigns, and other media of awareness creation, many could have been saved from many diseases. I will like to join the presently available campaign teams across the world. Bodies like WHO (World Health Organization), USAID and lot more are doing a great job in sensitizing the entire globe on several health issues. Better still, if given all I require, I will like to create a new body that will focus on the developing countries. The Old and the young in the developing countries go through so much concerning their health.Unaware of repercussions of many of their ways, hence leading to many diseases. They are locked up in a vicious circle of ill-health simply because of their poverty which does not afford them good health care. Countries like Somalia, Angola, Nigeria, to mention only but few among others, they need face lift in their attitudes towards their health schemes. Many children die of malaria or typhoid and yet many crippled by polio. These are diseases that could be cured or prevented with just a vaccination or some other simple drugs as the case may be. Of more focus is the old, weak and fragile both physically and emotionally. They suffer dissertation and low appetite. Their psychological status is assumed defective; they feel an aura of rejection. The chewing skill is increased but without enhancement, for their teeth become weak like cotton. Of more concern to me are the aged ones in the developing country, where the government of the masses cares less for the aged ones. Retired with little or no pension, living a practical vicious circle of no income, no health. I wish I could grow up in skill and knowledge in medicine vastly to help these people crying out everyday. For long, I have watched mentors making things happen in the world of health; it is high time I joined the train and contributed my own quota, lest it will be late. How to cite A passion for practicing medicine in Developing Country, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Mujadid Alif Th free essay sample

The great reformers Sheikh Ahmad Sarhindi al-Farooqi an-Naqshbandi was born in Sarhind on June 26, 1564. He belonged to a devout Muslim family. Sheikh Ahmad received his basic education at home. His initial instructions in the Holy Quran, Hadith and theology were rendered in Sarhind and Sialkot. Later, he devoted most of his time to the study of Hadith, Tafseer and philosophy. During this period the Muslims in India had become so deficient in the knowledge of true Islam that they had more belief in Karamat or miracles of the saints than Islamic teachings. The Ulema and theologians of the time had ceased to refer to the Quran and Hadith in their commentaries, and considered jurisprudence the only religious knowledge. Akbar, the Mughal king had started a series of experiments with Islam, propagating his own religion Din-i-Ilahi, an amalgamation of Hindu and Muslim beliefs. In these circumstances, Sheikh Ahmad set upon himself the task of purifying the Muslim society. We will write a custom essay sample on Mujadid Alif Th or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He was highly critical of the philosophy of Wahdat-ul Wujud, against which he gave his philosophy of Wahdat-ush-Shuhud. He entered into correspondence with Muslim scholars and clerics and laid stress on following the true contours of Islam. To him, mysticism without Shariah was misleading. He stressed the importance of Namaz and fasting. Through preaching, discussions and his maktubat addressed to important nobles and leaders of religious thought, he spread his message amongst the elite in particular. As he and his followers also worked in the imperial camp and army, he was soon noticed by Jehangir. Jehangir, unlike his father, was a more orthodox Muslim. He was imprisoned at Gwalior Fort for two years until the Emperor realized his mistake. Jehangir then not only released Sheikh Ahmad, but also recalled him to Agra. Sheikh Ahmads greatest contribution was undoubtedly the task of countering unorthodox Sufism and mystic beliefs. He wrote many books, including his famous works, Isbat-ul-Nabat and Risal-i-Nabuwat. His greatest work on Islamic philosophy was the Tauheed-i-Shuhudi. Sheikh Ahmad continued preaching Islam till the end of his days. He urged people to adhere to the accepted and clearly laid down path of Islam. He passed away in 1624. * Education Sheikh Ahmad’s father Sheikh Abdul Ahad was a well-known sufi of his times. Sheikh Ahmad received his basic education at home. His initial instructions in the Holy Quran, Hadith and theology were rendered in Sarhind and Sialkot. Later, he devoted most of his time to the study of Hadith, Tafseer and philosophy. He worked for some time in Lahore as well. But the greater part of his life was spent in Sarhind, where he was to become the champion of Islamic values. He visited Delhi in 1599 and went to see Khwaja Baqi Billah, who asked him to spend a few days in his hospice. Within two days Ahmad requested the khwaja to take him into discipleship. After having initiated Shaikh Ahmad into various stages of spiritual development under the Naqshbandi order, the khwaja wrote: Shaikh Ahmad is †¦ rich in knowledge and vigorous in action. I associated with him for a few days, and noticed truly marvelous things in his spiritual life. He will turn into a light which will illuminate the world. * Social condition of India In the beginning of the reform movement Muslim society ridden with un-Islamic practices and trends. Under the hindu ,a firm and widespread bleif in karamat had developed in the societywith greatly misguided the innocent people. In sufiism many means of developing magical and supernatural power, alien to Islam , had been developed . the mystics and Sufis of those openly denied the authenticity of sharia by declaring by declaring sharia as superficial and external. They even proudly manifested their indifference towards the sunnah or examples of Holly Profit (Peace Be these trends the Religious spirit excessively diminished and gave rise to the juristic view of Islam. During the Days Akbar ruled the sub-continental whose anti Islamic outlook had aggravated the social environes. Akbar had no learnings towards Islmic principles and tents. He promoted Hinduism by marrying aHindu ladies and by allowing free access to the rajputs and Hindus in his court. He also appointed Hindu Rajpots on heigher civil and military position s. The introduction of Din-i-llahi by Akbar was a grave attempt to distort pertaining to the religious matters which were to be considered as authentic and final. The ipact of Din-i-llahi greatly affected the muslim bleifs and trends. It split the muslim society into several factions and promoted heretic attitudes and practicies. Cancellation the system of Prayers Akbar cancelled to offer prayer five times in a day and started the worshiping of the Sun. The mosques and tombs were made the rest houses of Hindus. But some Mosques were made stables of the horses. Instead saying prayer in Mosques, they were indecent and obscenity deeds were done. * Disgrace the Month of Ramzan Akbar banned to observe fast. He called it the month of hunger and thi rst. He ordered his courtiers to eat and drink or at least to keep betel-leaf in their mouths before him. The observer of fast was insulted in the bazars. Publically, the persons who ate or drank were encouraged. * Ban on Pilgrimage. Jahangir stated that Akbar banned hajj. Mulla Abdullah sultan Puri Makhdoom Al Malik did not only give the judicial degree to eliminate it on the account of miseries and hardships of roads during Hajj period but also declared it a sin. He also introduced other deformities. There was complete ban on slaughter of cow. Pigs and dogs were declared holy and they were to be considered to worship. The king visited them daily. To drink alcohol was made lawful. Bathing after sexual intercourse was banned. Gambling and usury were made lawful. Prostitute’s houses were built to encourage prostitution and they got regular patronage of government. Marriages with close relatives such as uncle’s daughter’s etc. were declared unlawful. This indicates that is clear deviation from the basic Islamic principles. They also tried to abolish Islamic values. These conditions were not bearable for a true believer of Islam * Services Of Mujaddid * Purifying un-Islamic Tendencies Mujaddid under took the Job of Purifying the muslim society of un-islamic tendencies by sending a no of his deciples in all directions to preach the true-Islam. He asked them to emphesise on Ittibat-i-Sunnah and the commandent on the sharia in their sermons and preachings. He urged muslims to live their life according to the principles of Islam. He stressed on muslims to revert to the purer Islam by gining up heretical customs and practices . According to Simon Digby, modern hagiographical literature emphasizes Sirhindis reiterated profession of strict Islamic orthodoxy, his exaltation of the sharia and exhortations towards its observance. † I the time of Jhangir Mujaddid was successful to a greater extent to exitract a solemn undertaking from the muslims that they would not obey any orders repugnant to Islam. * Mujaddids Letters Mujaddid adopted an effectivemethod of pursuation by writting letter to the leading nobles of the royal court. Most famous of his work are 536 letters, collectively entitled Collected Letters or Maktubat, to the Mughal rulers and other contemporaries. It consists of three volumes. A number of the books written by Ahmad Sirhindi were reprinted in Karachi. Of those books, Ithbat-un-nubuwwa was reproduced by offset process in Istanbul in 1974. The marginal notes on the book, which is in Arabic, provide a biography of Ahmad Sirhindi. This Holly Book Translate Bangle language by Hazrat Shah Mohammad Muti Ahamed Aftabi Dinajpuri(R. ). The Language of k\letters were which would move mountains ,to leading nobelsof the state, bemoaning the sad state in which Islam had fallen in India * Imprison of Mujaddidalif sani. Mujaddid also dealt with matters other then Religious rivials in his letters . This policy drew him into lot of difficulties . And he was alerted many time. In Gawalyar when he refused to prostrate by saying that he will not perform the sajdda before a human being . He declred that the sajda was only due to Almighty God. SO Jhangir imprisoned him in fort of gawalyar. * Two Nation theory Mujaddid was a stunch advocate of the separateness of muslims and desired to maintain the distinct image of musslim Nationalism. He laid great emphasis on the separate identity of the Muslims and adopted a very sterm attitude against the Hindus . Sheikh Ahmad Firmly bleived in Two nation theory . He was in favour of maintainig the differences between Hindus and Muslims. HE wanted Jizya to be re-imposed on Hindus and demanded the destruction of Hindu temples. * Wahdat-ul-Wajud Sirhindi strongly opposed the mystical doctrine known as wahdat-ul-wajud or tawhid-i-wajudi, a concept which emphasizes that in reality all things exist within God. Nonetheless, he did not hold a particularly unfavorable view of the sufi mystic and theoretician Muhyi-l-Din ibn Arabi, who is often presented as the originator and most complete propounder of this philosophy. In refuting the monistic position of wahdat-ul-wajud, he instead advanced the notion of wahdat-ash-shuhud (oneness of appearance). According to this doctrine, the experience of unity between God and creation is purely subjective and occurs only in the mind of the Sufi who has reached the state of fana fi Allah (to forget about everything except Almighty Allahu taala). * Influence in india Mujaddid Alf Sani changed the history with his unique strength, faithful courage and stability. Islam got new life in subcontinent on the account of his great efforts. This thing is clear as the Sun that only Ahmed Sirhindi’s (R.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Animal Farm as a History essays

Animal Farm as a History essays ...But some are more equal than others... Ever since Animal Farm by George Orwell was first published in 1945, a small, subconscious voice has uttered this phrase to urge the rethinking of equality. This closing thought and the events of Animal Farm closely parallel the history of the Russian Revolution and Communist Russias first steps. An allegory can evoke a unique and enlightening view of a famous historical event. Through symbolism in this allegory, communism is analyzed from another perspective. Old Major, an aged boar symbolic of Marx and Lenin, shares with the farm animals his dream of a golden future. The Animalist revolution of which he spoke soon occurred. After Mr. Jones, the owner of the farm, gets drunk and neglects to feed the animals for three days, the animals break into the food stores and chase Jones off the farm. The animals revolution against Mr. Jones clearly represents the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the book, Mr. Jones represents Czar Nicolas II, who lived a life of luxury and ignored his suffering people. Similarly, Mr. Jones was often intoxicated and ignored the animals. Historical connections made themselves known very early in the book. The animals were ecstatic upon acquiring the farm, but it soon became clear that organization and rules were needed to maintain order. The pigs, who considered themselves the smartest on the farm, took it upon themselves to lead the animals. Orwell clearly used satire when representing the communist leaders as pigs (not very respectable animals). Soon, there was a skirmish between Mr. Joness men and the animals as the humans tried to retake farm, but the animals were victorious. The Battle of Cowshed, as it was dubbed, represents the White Russian Revolution, in which non-communists attempted to regain control of Russia and overthrow communism. One of the heroes in this battle was Snowball, a boar who had led the attack but was grazed ...

Monday, March 2, 2020

A Modern Look at the Plague of Athens

A Modern Look at the Plague of Athens The plague of Athens took place between the years 430-426 BC, at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. The plague killed an estimated 300,000 people, among which was the Greek statesman Pericles. It is said to have caused the death of one in every three people in Athens, and it is widely believed to have contributed to the decline and fall of classical Greece. The Greek historian Thucydides was infected by the disease but survived it; he reported that plague symptoms included high fever, blistered skin, bilious vomiting, intestinal ulcerations, and diarrhea. He also said that birds and animals which preyed on the animals were affected and that doctors were among the most affected by it. The Disease That Caused the Plague Despite Thucydides detailed descriptions, until recently scholars have been unable to come to a consensus of which disease (or diseases) caused the Plague of Athens. Molecular investigations published in 2006 (Papagrigorakis et al.) have pinpointed typhus or typhus with a combination of other diseases. Ancient writers speculating on the cause of plagues included the Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen, who believed a miasmic corruption of the air arising from swamps affected the people. Galen said that contact with the putrid exhalations of the infected was quite dangerous. More recent scholars have suggested that the Athens plague arose from bubonic plague, lassa fever, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, measles, typhoid, smallpox, toxic-shock syndrome-complicated influenza, or ebola fever.​ Kerameikos Mass Burial One problem modern scientists have had identifying the cause of the Athens plague is that classical Greek people cremated their dead. However, in the mid-1990s, an extremely rare mass burial pit containing approximately 150 dead bodies was discovered. The pit was located on the edge of the Kerameikos cemetery of Athens and consisted of a single oval pit of an irregular shape, 65 meters (213 feet) long and 16 m (53 ft) deep. The bodies of the dead were laid in a disorderly fashion, with at least five successive layers separated by thin intervening deposits of soil. Most bodies were placed in outstretched positions, but many were placed with their feet pointing into the center of the pit. The lowest level of interments showed the most care in placing the bodies; subsequent layers exhibited increasing carelessness. The upper-most layers were simply heaps of the deceased buried one on top of another, no doubt evidence of a spike in deaths or a growing fear of interaction with the dead. Eight urn burials of infants were found. Grave goods were limited to the lower levels and consisted of about 30 small vases. Stylistic forms of the Attic period vases indicate they were mostly made around 430 BC. Because of the date, and the hasty nature of the mass burial, the pit has been interpreted as from the Plague of Athens. Modern Science and the Plague In 2006, Papagrigorakis and colleagues reported on the molecular DNA study of teeth from several individuals interred in the Kerameikos mass burial. They ran tests for the presence of eight possible bacilli, including anthrax, tuberculosis, cowpox and bubonic plague. The teeth came back positive only for Salmonella enterica servovar Typhi, enteric typhoid fever. Many of the clinical symptoms of the Plague of Athens as described by Thucydides are consistent with modern day typhus: fever, rash, diarrhea. But other features are not, such as the rapidity of the onset. Papagrigorakis and colleagues suggest that perhaps the disease has evolved since the 5th century BC, or perhaps Thucydides, writing 20 years later, got some things wrong, and it may be that typhoid was not the only disease involved in the Plague of Athens. Sources This article is a part of the guide to the Ancient Medicine, and the  Dictionary of Archaeology. Devaux CA. 2013.  Small oversights that led to the Great Plague of Marseille (1720–1723): Lessons from the past.  Infection, Genetics and Evolution 14(0):169-185.  doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2012.11.016 Drancourt M, and Raoult D. 2002.  Molecular insights into the history of plague.  Microbes and Infection  4(1):105-109.  doi: 10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01515-5 Littman RJ. 2009.  The Plague of Athens: Epidemiology and Paleopathology.  Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine: A Journal of Translational and Personalized Medicine  76(5):456-467.  doi: 10.1002/msj.20137 Papagrigorakis MJ, Yapijakis C, Synodinos PN, and Baziotopoulou-Valavani E. 2006.  DNA examination of ancient dental pulp incriminates typhoid fever as a probable cause of the Plague of Athens.  International Journal of Infectious Diseases  10(3):206-214.  doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2005.09.001 Thucydides. 1903 [431 BC].  Second Year of the War, Plague of Athens, Position and Policy of Pericles, Fall of Potidaea.  History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 2, Chapter 9: J. M. Dent/University of Adelaide. Zietz BP, and Dunkelberg H. 2004.  The history of the plague and the research on the causative agent Yersinia pestis.  International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health  207(2):165-178.  doi: 10.1078/1438-4639-00259

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Virgin Atlantic A Premium Brand Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Virgin Atlantic A Premium Brand - Assignment Example The airline industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. The airline industry is playing a major role towards the growth of the world economy and also helping to increase tourism activities. The concept of high quality and money worthy airline was introduced in 1984. Virgin Atlantic is world’s first luxurious airline established by the founder of Virgin Group, Richard Branson. Virgin Atlantic is headquartered in West Sussex, UK. Nowadays the company is operating globally. For example, Virgin Atlantic provides airline service in countries such as Australia, Caribbean, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Nigeria, South Africa, Dubai, and the USA. At present Virgin Atlantic Airways has a fleet of ten Airbus A330-300s, Four Airbus A340 aircraft, and five Boeings 747. They already have ordered six Airbus A380 aircraft which will be in operation from the year 2015. The company also operates with cargo flights in some countries of the world. Apart from that, the compan y has also entered the hospitality industry in 1984 and launched Virgin Holidays. Virgin Holidays tour and traveling venture that operates in the new Virgin Atlantic routes such as Orlando, Miami etc. Some of the major competitors of Virgin Atlantic are British Airways, Air France, and the Fly Emirates. Presently, the employee strength of Virgin Atlantic is around 9000 worldwide. Last financial year Virgin Atlantic earned  £46.8m revenue while their annual turnover is around  £2m. Virgin Atlantic is acknowledged globally for its excellence in services to the customers and the unique promotional strategy. Through this report, the competitive strategies and core competencies of Virgin Atlantic airline will be uncovered.